Transferring a domain from one company to another usually involves the use of a unique authorization code, which different companies refer to as an EPP authorization code, a domain name password or an AuthInfo code. This code can be used as a security mechanism against unauthorized transfers with all generic and with most country-code extensions. It can be obtained only by the owner of the given domain and is issued by the present registrar company. It must be given to the new registrar because the transfer cannot be initiated without it. The code is case-sensitive and typically includes digits and special characters, so as to hinder unauthenticated people from deciphering it. Certain registrars even alter the codes of domains registered through them after a given period of time for greater security.